The Best Financial Tips for Newlyweds
Don’t miss these financial tips for newlyweds and couples, shared by some of the top personal finance bloggers and money experts!
Money is a big part of life, and managing it with your partners is a big part of any relationship.
For richer or for poorer… that’s what you agreed to when you spoke your vows in front of friends and family. But while it can be easy to promise to love and to cherish no matter what situations arise, the reality is that the “M-word” is often a cause of conflict for most couples and newlyweds.
When it comes to arguments in a relationship, cash (or lack thereof) easily beats out religion, fights about kids, and even how many hours our spouse spent in front of the television.
According to one study, money is the most common reason for arguments in the first three years of marriage. So, what can couples and newlyweds do to prevent their finances from impacting their relationship? What is the best financial advice for couples and newlyweds?
Best Financial Tips For Newlyweds and Couples
Today we bring financial experts together from across the globe with different socio-cultural backgrounds to share their secrets to money management in marriage. Below is a selection of their best financial tips for newlyweds or couples at any stage of marriage.
1. Give Yourselves the Gift of Time, Start Now!
My best financial advice for newlyweds is to start saving immediately. Time in the market will always be the most impactful due to the power of compounding interest.
$100,000 invested by 30 gets you to roughly $1.5 million by 65 (assuming an 8% return). This doesn’t account for any additional contributions from ages 30-65.
$100,000 invested by 40 only gets you to roughly $700k by 65 (assuming an 8% return).
True wealth is a combination of financial freedom and meaningful relationships.
2. Let The Past Die
–Michael of Wealth of Geeks, @michaeldinich
Let the past die – Kylo Ren
The best advice for couples managing their finances together is to not dwell on the past. Merging finances can be a challenge and it can be tempting to fixate on past mistakes. However, focusing on mistakes doesn’t move the dialog forward.
The key to building a healthy relationship with money is focusing on continuous and gradual improvement. Each day, try to be a little bit better than the previous. Eventually saving and budgeting will become fun and second nature.
3. Figure Out Your Money Type as Individuals and as a Couple
Take the time to figure out each other’s money type– it’s likely they are different. Once you know what each of your money personalities is, you can use them as a basis for approaching conversations about finances in a healthy and understanding way.
Then, make sure to take the couples money type quiz to determine your current baseline so you can build a productive and prosperous path forward. This will make it so much easier to get yourselves on the same page and start moving towards your financial goals!
Also, don’t forget to enjoy the ride. Don’t worry about getting everything perfect, as there’s no such thing. Make sure you know each other’s current financial situation and outlook, be intentional about the big decisions, and always approach your finances as a team.
4. Talk About Money Early
–Jay of Time In The Market, @Timeinthemarket
Marry someone who has a similar view of money as you do, that’s my main piece of life advice. There’s a reason that finances are cited as a reason for so many divorces and a relationship that doesn’t account for differing opinions or beliefs can have a hard time getting off the ground.
My advice to any couple is to talk about money early and often because it lays the groundwork for a successful relationship. Have a discussion about what money means to you, whether it’s a vehicle for future spending and financial safety or something to be spent right away. These two ideas are clearly opposites and may be difficult to reconcile causing strife in a long-term relationship.
That’s not to say that people with opposing viewpoints on spending or saving can’t be happy together but talking about them early and coming to a sensible middle ground may be the key in that happiness. It’s impossible to come to that middle ground without having these sometimes uncomfortable discussions.
5. Be On The Same Page
–Marc of Vital Dollar, @vital_dollar
I think one of the biggest keys to managing finances as a couple is communication. Both of you need to be on the same page. My wife and I set down every couple of months and talk about our finances. We look at our expenses, what we’re saving for, and talk about our overall plans and goals. That way we can make sure that we’re both on the same page, and if there are any areas where we disagree we can talk about it before it becomes a problem.
6. Remember You Are Partners
–Vicki Cook of Women Who Money, @WomenWhoMoney
My best financial tip for newlyweds: remember that you are partners. Sure, one of you may be the “money” person in the relationship. I am that person in our marriage and my husband is fine with that. But I make sure that we have a “money-date” once every two weeks to talk about bills, upcoming payments, and where we stand on our financial goals. You are partners and whether the other person likes talking about it or not, it is incredibly important that you both know and have input on your finances.
7. Communicate Regularly
Communication, communication, communication. Discuss a plan, agree on a plan, and communicate regularly on how it’s going. We manage our money jointly as that works for us. But that decision comes down to the aforementioned communication and plan.
8. Sit Down And Talk About Money
–Mike Collins of Budget Kitty, @BudgetKitty
The best advice I can give to newly married couples is to really sit down and talk about money. Don’t just assume you have the same opinions and priorities. If you have this conversation up front you’ll likely realize that you don’t always see eye to eye. It’s better to learn that early and form a compromise. If not you’ll find out the hard way and you can find yourselves in a real financial mess.
9. Understand Your Money and Spending Behavior
–Ling Thich of FinSavvy Panda, @FinsavvyPanda
Every couple is different at managing their money. We all have our own beliefs and values, so everyone is unique when it comes to saving and spending money. This is why it’s important to understand your money mindset, budgeting, and spending behavior, especially for newlyweds.
Some people are frugal at heart and natural savers whereas others always feel the itch to spend and can’t resist tapping that credit card.
When you have couples on different wavelengths (e.g. one natural spender and one natural saver), the first and most important thing to do is to acknowledge their differences, and communicate with each other, instead of trying to force the other party to change completely. This is where implementing a budgeting system that is suited for their personality type can also help.
For example, natural spenders who can’t ditch their credit cards might find the cash-only envelope system works best to curb their spending. This system works by writing down their different budgeting categories, assigning each to an envelope, and stuffing cash inside with a spending limit. Once the envelope is out of cash, they’re literally out of cash!
On the other hand, for natural savers who find it challenging to spend, the reverse budget system can help. This system focuses on one concept – “pay yourself first.” Once you set a savings target by paying yourself first, you can use the remaining to pay for monthly expenses such as utility, groceries, cable, etc.
Once all of that is paid, you can treat the last remaining amount as “fun” money and spend it on whatever makes you happy for the month without feeling guilty or bad for spending. The whole point is to work with a budgeting system that will help you save money, and spend wisely, based on your spending behavior and personality type.
10. Get Fired Up And Attack Your Finances Together
–Mrs. Groovy of Freedom Is Groovy, @FreedomIsGroovy
My best financial tip for newlyweds: get on the same page. Early in our marriage we each had debt. But rather than feeling bad about our individual shortcomings, we got fired up and attacked it together. Mingling our money, focusing on joint goals and dreams, and keeping no monetary secrets, have all given us a solid financial foundation. Finally, geo-arbitrage served us well. We lived In New York where our margin of error was very slim and the most we could hope for was getting by. Moving away from family and friends to live in low-cost North Carolina gave us room to breathe.
11. Start by simply tracking your expenses
–Financial Pilgrimage, @financialplgrm
Financial information can be overwhelming. Below are a few actionable steps that a couple can take to start setting a financial foundation.
1) Track Your Expenses. Regardless of your income level, you can start by simply tracking your expenses. Make a commitment to track every penny you spend for two months and see what happens. Tracking your expenses will allow you to take control of your financial situation and help you develop a plan. You will think twice about those impulse purchases that we all make at times.
2) Establish a Small Emergency Fund. Second, set a goal to save up an emergency fund of $500 to $1,000. This will give you some cushion when small emergencies happen, such as a flat tire, broken dishwasher, or unexpected doctor’s visit. This is so important early on as there is nothing more frustrating than having to go further into debt to cover unexpected expenses.
3) Automate Your Finances. This one is a bit more complex, but after tracking your spending for a few months and building a small emergency fund, look into automating your finances. This simply means setting up systems to automatically invest, save, pay down debt, or pay your monthly bills.
12. Put Your Budget In Charge
–Evan & Nikayla Sutherland of Budgeting Couple, @BudgetingCoupl
Let a budget be in charge of your money, and put an end to unwanted arguments!
Sit down with your spouse, create an unemotional, unbiased, income-based plan that you both can agree to follow, and voila! Your budget is now in charge of your money. So the next time you’re unsure if it’s wise to spend, don’t consult your spouse: they’re not in charge! Consult your budget instead. You and your spouse will always remain on the same financial page and live blissfully without spending arguments as long as you stick to the budget.
13. Talk Often And Remain Open To All Viewpoints
–Scott of Making Momentum, @making_momentum
The biggest breakthrough we’ve had as a couple came after we started to openly discuss our finances. This included our financial goals, the biggest financial (and life) priorities coming up, and the biggest insights we had about one another’s financial habits (good or bad).
Thankfully this began within the first year of our now five years and counting relationship. At first, this was a more delicate situation as we were still getting to understand one another better. However, in time it’s quickly become one of the best decisions we’ve made and helped us improve our personal finances across the board.
From income growth and spending habits to travel hacking and retirement planning, getting on the same page through open discussion has shifted our entire financial journey together.
At the end of every month, we sit down to talk about our finances. The discussion might take 5 minutes if it’s been a good month and we’re on the same page or an hour if there are bigger factors to discuss.
Money will play an important role for the rest of our lives. Getting on the same page is paramount. The stress and uneasiness that money can sometimes bring into a relationship are often alleviated with a simple, open conversation.
In terms of advice for those looking to improve their relationship with money alongside a significant other, I would say:
- Talk often and remain open to all viewpoints
- Try to keep the emotions out of it and stick to the facts
- Individual discretionary funds can help if one of you is more of a saver and the other is a spender
- Set a money date or monthly budget meeting to have an ongoing “official” conversation
Monetary struggles are one of the leading causes of divorce and when times are tight financially, the pressure becomes even more heightened. Make open discussion a priority in your life when it comes to finances and your significant other.
My best financial tips for newlyweds: Don’t let finances be a taboo subject in your relationship.
14. Be Open And Honest With Your Finances
–Tim of Life For The Better, @LifeForTheBettr
Be open and honest with your finances when starting a marriage. We recently got married and finances are a hot topic item for every individual. We were open and honest with what we have and what we didn’t have. This led us to conversations about what we wanted out of life and how to get there. Simply by being open and honest, we were able to enjoy the conversation more and figure out details that truly matter not only for us right now, but for our future kids one day.
–Andrew of Wealthy Nickel, @wealthynickel
Communicate, communicate, communicate. My wife and I have different ideas about the best way to handle our finances, but we learned in the beginning that things go a lot smoother when we schedule a time to talk about our budget and future plans.
My wife is a saver and I am an entrepreneur/investor (i.e. I am willing to take more risk with our investments for potentially better returns). Talking through my ideas has the benefit of allowing her to better understand them and critique the ones that may not be the best use of our joint funds.
At the end of the day, you have to be willing to have difficult conversations and compromise for the benefit of your family.
16. Define Your Goals And Automate Your Finances
–Elle Martinez of Couple Money, @CoupleMoney
Two crucial factors that helped us work as a financially opposite couple are really defining our goals and automating our finances.
When we looked beyond just the numbers of paying off debt and saving and began imagining the options and freedom that open up for more travel and being able to work from home, it created a deep motivation to follow a budget together.
It helped me to see that I was saying no to certain unnecessary (or low-value) expenses because we needed those funds for the big dreams.
Once we ran the numbers, we then made sure we stuck with the plan by automating most of our savings, investments, and bills. We then review things on our monthly money date, making finances less stressful and actually fun.
17. Have a “Fun Budget’ For The Spender
–Michael Coleman of The Budget Boy, @thebudgetboy
My best money advice for couples is to know each other’s spending habits and develop a system to make each other comfortable and happy.
My wife is a spender and I’m an extreme saver. Naturally, this became a big point of conflict when we first merged finances, perhaps the biggest. Our solution was a monthly “Fun Budget” for her.
These funds can be used for clothing, hair, make-up, nails, social activities that don’t include me, etc. The rule is I can’t say anything… as long as she stays within budget.
18. Make Information Available To Both
–Amanda of My Life, I Guess, @mylifeiguess
My top financial tip for newlyweds is to keep each other informed. Although I manage the money in my relationship, I always keep my husband in the loop. Our kitchen calendar has the due dates and amounts for each bill listed, so we can both see where things stand at-a-glance.
Anything that’s out of the ordinary is shared with each other and then also goes right on the fridge. Having this information available to both of us at all times – and in a place that is in our faces at least a few times a day – has really helped to keep us both involved and aware of our finances.
19. Talk It Through And Develop A Plan Together
–Millionaire Mob, @millionairemob2
Be upfront with your money. Talk it through and develop a plan together. If you aren’t transparent and both don’t contribute to learning about personal finance, you’ll never get on the same page. From there, set out weekly/bi-weekly time to discuss progress and your spending habits.
20. Communicate openly with each other
– Allison Kade of Fabric, @amkade
Couples can work better together on money when they communicate openly with each other and when both people have the knowledge to feel empowered. Too many people outsource all of the money management to a spouse because they don’t feel confident about managing their family’s finances, themselves.
To some extent, this is especially true of women, and this dynamic can lead to trouble. If you don’t know how to deal with money, yourself, you risk being trapped in an unhealthy relationship or situation.
By contrast, when both people feel like they have the requisite financial know-how, then they can make an informed decision about what they do and don’t want to manage themselves. For example, I tend to enjoy investing and doing high-level finance strategy, so I usually grab those tasks, while my husband tends to manage the day-to-day things like reviewing our credit card statements.
The important thing, though, is that he understands the basic concepts of investing, knows where we have our accounts, and generally has a handle on how much we’re saving, where, and why. Similarly, I like that he deals with our credit cards so I don’t have to, but I make sure to know which cards we have, roughly how much we’re spending, and where everything is.
21. Face Your Own Spending Demons
–Chris Roane of Money Stir, @MoneyStir
My best financial tip for newlyweds: come clean and make a plan of attack together. Being the “big spender” in our relationship, I’ve gotten us into a lot of credit card debt in the past. It was a never-ending credit card debt cycle.
I would get us into debt, I would get motivated to get us out, and the process would repeat. I was dragging our future down financially.
During each scenario, I would approach my wife with all of the reasons why going into debt for a certain purchase was worth it. I was very convincing. Once I received the item, it never lived up to what I was hoping for.
There was a deep issue I was avoiding with my spending. Until I faced my own spending demons, our financial future was screwed. I knew what we should do, but couldn’t align my actions with what I knew to be true.
Being in a relationship requires that we take a hard look at our spending habits and make sure they are aligned with our future goals. This requires a high level of communication and dedication. Getting on the same page has to be the top priority.
22. Have The Hard Discussions Early In Your Marriage
–Kevin of Next Level Finance, @KevinDuffey
Like most things in marriage, handling money together well comes down to communication. Rather than silently letting resentment build over how your partner is spending or handling money, you must communicate.
Have hard discussions early in your marriage. Putting things on paper is another important element of communication. For instance, talk candidly about expectations for spending and saving, then turn this into a written budget. Communicate frequently and openly. It’ll pay dividends for a lifetime!
23. Let Your Spouse Know When You Pay A Bill
–JoeHx of Joe’s Github Blog, @JoesGitHubBlog
One of my best money tips for couples is to keep your partner in the loop about bills and payments. Since I am responsible for making sure bills get paid, I let my spouse know when I pay a bill.
Also, I create monthly reports in Excel we call a “debt snapshot” that shows our debts, as well as the balance of our debts and investments for every month since I started doing these (January 2017). I then email my spouse the report.
24. Culture And Money Can Clash Even When Scarcity Or Savings Isn’t An Issue.
–Lily H of Merry for Money, @merry4money
I’m Asian-American and my husband is “All” American. In East Asian households, it’s not uncommon for women to handle the household money. Gambling and alcohol were often an issue among poorer working-class men, and that was one way to prevent those behaviors. I grew up with my mom handling 100% of the money. All my dad needed to do was deposit his paycheck to her and she dictated the rest.
My American husband grew up in a very typical, Catholic, traditional suburban household. His mom was a stay-at-home housewife, circa 1950 style, and she got an allowance. If she needed to buy anything extra, she asked her husband for money. My husband’s father handles all the household finances, even today, and now they’re both in their late 60s.
My best financial advice for couples is to be aware of cultural and familial differences in money philosophies. I would encourage all couples to acknowledge the differences and work them out first before they snowball into bigger issues.
My father resented my mother because he never found out what she did with the money exactly. On the other hand, my husband’s mother was angry with his father over the mismanagement of her small inheritance from her parents.
My husband and I like to keep a good 50/50 balance in household finances to avoid resentment and mismanagement.
25. Start immediately, living below your means
I’ve been married for 3 decades and understand how important it is to stay on sound financial footing throughout a marriage.
My best financial advice for couples is to start immediately living below your means. That means take a portion of every paycheck and save and invest it into 3 buckets:
- Short-term savings account for emergencies (up to 6 months of living expenses)
- Medium-term savings for bigger expenses such as vacations, home down payment or kids college.
- Long-term investing for retirement. It’s great to consider investing this money for the future. For new investors, a robo-advisor, digital investment manager is a great way to get started investing.
After your saving and investing money is out of sight, you can spend the rest!
26. Talk, talk, and talk some more
Talk, talk, and talk some more when it comes to your life goals and money goals. Share all the things with your new spouse and encourage them to share with you. Dream big together and come up with a game plan on how to achieve those goals. Working towards goals together will bring you both closer and help you both become confident with money and learn to trust and respect the other in the realm of managing money.
Budgeting will become more natural, and so will saving for retirement, wealth building, and of course, paving the way for future children. Building a stable home environment starts with bonding with your spouse over the big things that can typically tear couples apart – don’t let that happen with your marriage. Talk often about your goals and where you two want your money to take you. It’s an incredible thing to watch when a couple walks hand-in-hand toward their life’s dreams.
27. Keep a “do whatever you want with” fund
–J. Money of BudgetsAreSexy.com,
The best financial advice for couples is to have a separate fund to spend as you wish.
“I always like the idea of keeping a ‘do whatever you want with’ fund that’s just for you to spend on whatever you want. You share a lot in marriage, and sometimes it’s nice to just have something that’s all yours with no questions asked. And it doesn’t have to be a lot either – just having $100 or $200 in there each can feel good! Or whatever else you guys decide on together.”
28. See what works for you
–John Waggoner, Senior Associate Editor, Kiplinger’s Personal Finance.
My best financial tips for newlyweds are to try things out and see what works best for you. You’re probably going to have a couple of different systems for splitting your money, and you just have to see what works for you. Having a single joint account is fine in theory, as long as control issues don’t crop up.
Most people aren’t used to having to ask permission to buy something. As long as you’re open about your finances, separate checking accounts are fine. Joint savings and investment accounts are excellent, but you need to go over them together once or twice a year.
And make sure that your savings and investment accounts are titled properly: If one of you gets run over by a steamroller, you want the title to pass directly to the remaining spouse.
29. Set Boundaries
–Tonya Rapley of MyFabFinance.com, @myfabfinance
My best financial tip for newlyweds is to set boundaries. Setting boundaries for spending in your family can be a difficult necessity. To avoid becoming the ONLY financial solution that others depend on, especially when working to successfully manage money in your relationship, talk about it! It’s a tricky topic to discuss, but better to have a plan in advance.
30. Use Top Savings Tips To Save Serious Cash
–The Krazy Coupon Lady, @KrazyCouponLady
Make it a resolution to use the top savings tips to save serious cash. Get anything from free groceries to free Crock-Pots to free plane tickets… OH, MY! Check out these smokin’ hot savings tips! You should also know the things you should never spend money on.
31. Open communication is the key to making it all work
–Amanda from WhyWeMoney.com, @whywemoneyblog
My top financial tip for newlyweds is communication! I firmly believe the secret to our financial success (and long-lasting marriage!) is that my husband and I have always openly discussed finances. When you get married, you start a new life together. This means your financial lives need to change to accommodate this new life together. And I believe open communication is the key to making it all work.
At first, communicating about money might be difficult. We’re all influenced by our past experiences and how we were raised. So when we discuss finances, it goes much deeper than the money. Because, ultimately, our spending habits are an expression of our beliefs and values. Understanding the influence of our past and creating a safe environment (free of judgment) to discuss priorities and future goals is a good first step. Then a couple is better able to discuss individual and shared life goals – and align these goals with their finances.
Whether or not a couple decides to combine their funds, they’re still choosing to go through life together. Therefore, getting on the same page, financially and otherwise, is an absolute necessity.
32. Have a Monthly Financial Meeting
–DrBreatheEasyFinance, Dr breathe easy finance, @drbreatheeasy
There is nothing more awesome than for couples to be on the same financial page.
Monthly family financial meetings is an important strategy to implement from the very beginning of every relationship.
It is better to have a set a date or weekend of the month to do this. For example, we do ours every first weekend of the month. This allows both of you to mentally prepare and even do some homework before the date.
We usually combine it with a date to take the pressure off and make it more relaxing. We’ve actually paid a babysitter to watch the kids for these meetings.
Usually, we start our meetings by reviewing our net worth and our monthly budget. We then analyze and figure out what we did right and what needs improvement. These meetings have been very helpful to get us on the same page. are helpful in setting financial goals.
Our monthly meeting is a safe place to discuss money and not feel ambushed. It is important that you do not point fingers. Approach this like a quality improvement project in which the main purpose is to improve the process and not to blame the mistake on anyone.
We also say to forget prenup and try other financial planning strategies before tieing the knot.
33. Understand That Babies are Pricey
– Kim Blanton, Squared Away, @SquaredAwayBC
“The big budget buster everywhere is daycare, which is a financial shock for most new parents. The bills can easily reach or exceed $1,000 a month, and daycare represents 70 percent to 80 percent of what is spent on a baby, whether the parents live in New York City, Birmingham, Alabama, or Boise, Idaho.
Magnify Money’s estimates do not even include the college savings parents should start socking away immediately. They do include the federal tax credits for children.”
34. Sit down and have a strategy
My biggest financial tip for newlyweds is to have a strategy in place. Newlyweds should sit down and have a strategy of what they will do with their finances. Will they combine? Separate? Have his/hers/ours account? Also, be clear on your short-term and long-term goals so there are no surprises and you’re on the same page.”
35. Open A Joint Checking Account But Keep Existing Separate Accounts
–Alexander of DayTradingz, @daytradingz
Before it is even a question of making decisions about retirement planning in a partnership, couples often face a tense conflict in their relationships much earlier.
The conflict regarding the allocation of financial resources comes almost unavoidably to all couples.
This conflict arises in particular when it comes to whether they have a joint checking account in their relationship, or whether everyone has their own.
It is not uncommon that one of the partners to be more security-oriented and thrifty, and the other is willing to take risks and spend more spontaneously. With a joint checking account, the conflicts are already pre-programmed when both keep pace on how they spend their joint funds.
My advice is that both partners should first keep their existing accounts and also open a joint checking account to which each partner makes a monthly deposit.
This has several advantages:
- Each partner retains a piece of his financial independence
- The new account model can be tried out at a leisurely pace
- In the event of a break-up, the finances can be separated again easily
- There is a clear budget limit on the joint account which can be used for the expenses agreed upon.
36. Setup Regular Discussion Time
–Olivia of Happy in the Hollow, @happyhollowblog
Schedule a regular time to discuss important issues: A game-changer for our relationship with money (and other aspects of our lives) has been setting up weekly meetings. They allow us to check in with each other, review our budget, and discuss upcoming expenditures. We fine-tune details and make small ad hoc decisions via email throughout the week. I feel like we’re more on track and more on the same page financially than we’ve ever been.
37. Start Saving for Retirement Early
-Prakash of Dividend Power, @DividendPower1
Retirement is a complex topic for newlyweds because it is far off into the future. Instead, more pressing concerns like opening joint bank accounts, consolidating debt, setting budgets, and saving for a new house take priority. However, retirement should be a part of the discussion. Time passes quickly, and time is a primary factor in building an adequate retirement portfolio. Start early, and your nest egg can be six figures, but starting late and catching up is harder to do.
Investing for retirement is not difficult. Most newlyweds should keep it simple and build a lazy retirement portfolio of passive index funds or exchange-traded funds (ETFs). The goal is to keep fees low and capture the return of the broader stock market. Most index funds beat active mutual funds by the cost difference. The lazy portfolio concept is simple because asset allocations are already pre-determined for you. Newlyweds need to weigh the pros and cons and pick one suitable for their goals.
Wrap it up!
In many relationships, money has become a character whose name shouldn’t be mentioned just like Lord Voldemort in Harry Potter. But, does it have to be that way?
Today, you have 36 experts from across the globe with different, educational, religious, and socio-cultural backgrounds sharing with you their secrets to a healthy and happy relationship, especially when it comes to finances.
We believe you now have the best financial advice you really need to make your relationship a great one.
Over To You
So, what are the other financial advice, tips, strategies, techniques, or methods that you have used and worked for you in your marriage? Please share your financial tips for newlyweds with us in the comment section below.
And don’t forget there is love in sharing! Share this post with a newlywed couple who could use this advice, or join us in the community to continue the money talk.